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长江大学外国语学院本科毕业论文(设计)写作格式说明

作者: 添加时间:18-05-11 17:27:48 点击数:

     

 

    思维、语言与文化有着紧密的联系。语言是思维的载体,思维是语言的内容,这一切都统一在文化的总框架内。中西思维方式的差异一直是国内外学术界关注的重点研究课题。国内贾德江、刘宓庆,西方的R. Kaplan等学者对此课题进行了深入的研究,并取得了令人瞩目的成果。中英思维方式的差异可以从很多方面进行分类。中国人的思维总的来说是如重意象的直观性,对事物规律的归纳总结和重视主体的感受和内在逻辑性联系的意合,体现为主螺旋型上升趋势,具有明显的模糊性。而英国人的思维方式则重理性与分析性,注重对客体的临摹与再现,所以其思维呈直线状态,具有精确性的特点,强调严谨的外在形式的融合等。当然不同的学者也从其他方面进行了分类。这些思维方式在两个民族的语言上也有充分的体现,从词汇、句法、语义、语法和文体上分别呈现了明显的差异。对这些差异的忽视往往导致中英翻译中出现各种错误,如过于拘泥于原文的字面,忽略两种语言的句法特征,忽略不同的视角和文体特色,或者由于句法差异而导致在目的语的累赘表述等。

    为了避免上述问题,通常要有充分的文化背景知识,然后采取转换翻译策略,包括词类,词义,句法结构等的转换,同时也可以采取临摹翻译法和反向翻译法等策略。由此可见,思维方式的差异对翻译质量的影响不容忽视,必须采取相应的策略,以提高翻译质量。(400-450)

 

[关键词] 中英思维方式;差异;语言表现;翻译策略

 

 


Abstract

 

 Thought, language and culture are closely interrelated. Language embodies thoughts and thoughts dominate language, but both under the general framework of culture. Different thinking modes of the Chinese and the Westerners have always been a top academic issues. Such academic celebrity as Jia Dejiang, Liu Miqing, R. Scholar and Kaplan have conducted systematic studies on it and have yielded amazing results. Differences in Chinese and English thinking modes can be classified in various aspects. Chinese thinking modes tend to focus on visual effects, to generalize, be subject-oriented, tortuous and fuzzy, and above all be paratactic. The English thinking modes on the other hand are generally rational, analytical, object-targeted and straight forward and tend to by accurate and above all focus on hypotaxis. Of course other scholars may classify them from some other aspects. These special features in thinking modes are fully manifested in the two languages, lexically, syntactically, semantically, grammatically and contextually. Ignorance of these features may cause negative effects on translation such as stubborn rendering resulting from ignorance of different syntactic preferences, misleading rendering due to differences in viewpoints, awkward transferring for ignorance of rhetoric preference, inaccurate translation caused by improper diction or wordy diction regardless of the syntactic structural differences.

In order to avoid the above problems, sufficient cultural background information will be helpful and strategies such as shifting translation, graphic translation, backward translation shall be adopted. It can be thus concluded that translation cannot afford to neglect differences in thinking modes and that the corresponding strategy may greatly help improve the translation quality. 中文摘要的对应译文

 

[Keywords] Chinese and English thinking modes; differences; linguistic embodiment; translation strategies

 

 

 

 

Contents

1 Introduction……………………………………………………………...………..1

2 Literature Review……………………………………………………...………...2

2.1 Aristotelian School: Metaphor as a Device of Rhetoric……………..……….2

2.2 The Platonic School: Language is Metaphorical……………….……………. 5

2.3 The Study of Metaphor from the 20th Century to the Present……………...…..6

3 On Similarity……………………………………………………………………7

3.1 Similarity: A Fundamental Criterion for the Classification of Metaphor.…..7

3.2 Similarity and Culture………………………………………………………….9

3.3 Similarity and Category………………………….……………………………10

3.4 The Relationship Between Similarity and Knowledge……………………….13

4 On the Mechanism of Metaphor…………………………….………………...15

4.1 Black’s Interaction Theory………………………………………....................15

4.1.1 An Introduction to the Interaction Theory………………………………...15

4.1.2 Some Defects of the Interaction Theory…………………………………16

4.2 Lakoffian Conceptual Metaphor Theory……………………………………...19

4.2.1 The Philosophical Basis of Lakoffian Theory…………………………...19

4.2.2 Lakoffian Theory on the Mechanism of Metaphor………………………21

4.2.3 The Feficiencies of Lakoffian Theory in Expounding the Creation of Similarity…………………. ……………………………………………...26

4.3 Conceptual Integration Theory……………………………………………….29

4.3.1 An Introduction to the Conceptual Integration Theory……… ... ......29

4.3.2 The Advantages of BT in Solving the Paradox of the Former Theories………………………………………………………….……...34

5 Conclusion………………………………………………….……………………42

Works Cited………………………………………………..………………………45

Acknowledgements……………………………………………….………………………46


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