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长江大学外国语学院本科毕业论文(设计)写作格式说明

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1 Introduction

 

Language by nature is the embodiment of human thoughts and thoughts in turn is the mental reflection of the world around us on basis of some analysis, generalization, judgment and reasoning. Animals have thoughts as well, but their awkward sounds for communication are far from being language. Language is therefore closely related to and supported by human thoughts. That is to say, language has no basis for its existence if there is no thought. But thoughts, though accessible by various means, are best represented in language and can thus best fulfill its obligations to the speakers by such means. Language as an arbitrary, phonetic and morphologic semiotic and audio system of communication, has long defined as human and is thus the most convincing distinctive features of human beings from animals.

  The thinking patterns are one of the most important cues in culture. It is closely related to cultures and embodies the characteristics of cultural psychology. Besides, the modes of thinking also are closely related to language. Different modes of thinking are embodied in language.

(i) The relationship among language, culture and thought

Language is part of culture. Such as Chinese language is part of Chinese culture. Each country has its own language in a specific culture. However, their relationship is not just between part and whole. Language is the carrier and contained of culture, as many aspects of culture can be expressed in language. As a mirror of culture, language is strongly influenced and shaped by culture. In all, language and culture are closely related; each influences and shapes the other.

Language is an instrument used in the communication of thought. It is closely related to thought, too. It represents thought and is influenced by thought. In turn, thought is influenced by language. In addition, thought is determined by cultural value. Their relationships with each other seem more complex. In a word, each of them influences and shapes others. They are seen as three parts of a whole.

(ii) Different ways of thinking between Chinese and Western

“The ways of thinking is quite different, actually, people live in certain area have their own way of thinking. It connects to various kinds of factors, such as geography, history, nation and so on. The ways of thinking are the important reason of cultural difference. It includes knowledge, concepts, methods, language and custom and so on.” (Deng Yanchang, 1997: 483) These factors influence each other, which led to different ways of thinking. Therefore, the ways of thinking have their own characteristics, like geography characteristics, social characteristics and national characteristics, etc. According to geography characteristics, it can be divided into Han nation, English and American nation, etc. Here we will make a comparison on Chinese and Western ways of thinking.

 

The different ways of thinking in fact are the reflection of cultural difference. People who live in different areas for a long time have different cultural characteristics; therefore, their ways of thinking are different. (ibid.: 484)

 

Under the influence of different geography environments, life styles, customs and different cultural values; the East and West are different from ways of thinking. Let us examine some phenomena:

In the college, a foreign teacher is teaching in a class, he is talkative and expressive. Everyone listens to him interestingly. Suddenly, he stops and asks them a question. However, the students don’t know how to answer, they don’t tell the answers. The teacher got a little angry but he had no idea on their behavior. This scene often happens in Chinese classroom. In the foreigners’ eyes, they consider that keeping silent is not a good way when we contact with others. Even you don’t understand, you should say something instead of keeping silent, as it often is regarded as rude and impolite.

The reason lies in that the East and the West have a different way of thinking. The Eastern people are conservative, introvert and inactive, they put more emphasis on harmony, and they like common and stable life; while the Western people are more open-minded, extrovert and active, they like changeable life and thus they emphasize on competition. In this way, their different ways of thinking lead to their different understanding on each other’s behavior. If Chinese see somebody is talkative, they could think he or she wants to extent himself or herself to be the focus of everyone.

In China, we seldom see a couple making close contact in public. They are always walking side by side in a certain distance. While in the West, the couple will open to the public; they are free to show that they are a couple. Even they meet the acquaintances; they always give them a hug or kiss as greeting. Controversially, Chinese will shake hands with their friends but seldom hug them. They don’t kiss them as they regard it as an intimate action between husband and wife.

The reason why the east and the west people behave so differently is that people live in the East emphasize on ethic principal, morality, they focus on direct feeling and image. The westerners focus on freedom, democracy and emphasize on individual.

In all, Chinese traditional way of thinking has its own characteristics. It emphasizes the morality, harmony of the society; it promotes the collectivism, responsibility and devotion and so on. The western way of thinking also has its own characteristics. It emphasizes on logic and science, individual achievement, it promotes human right, equality and so on.

The great geographic distance between the British and the Chinese peoples, together with the accompanying different living conditions and cultural environments, has much accounted for the diverse conceptual patterns of the two nations. Such conceptual differences have been duly reflected in and shed great influence on the two languages. Translation between the two languages is consequently far beyond linguistic rendering, but more of cultural transferring and exchange of conceptual patterns.


2 Literature Review

 

According to Jia Dejiang, “thinking patterns, thought characteristics and thinking styles are the philosophical mechanism of language production. Language actually attaches closely to the thought that is the profound mechanism.” (Jia Dejiang, 2002: 166)

All metaphors, Aristotle believes, fall into at least one of these four categories, although analogy metaphors are the most pleasing. Aristotle also holds that metaphor can make the prosaic style charming, and stresses that it can only be confined to poetry (ibid.: 72). This perspective leads to the later theorists making distinction between poetic language and everyday language. Especially in Chapter 21 and 22 of Poetics, Aristotle states that every word “is either current, or strange, or metaphor, or ornamental, or newly coined, or lengthened, or contracted, or altered. (ibid.: 70)


3 Differences Between Chinese and English Thinking Modes 

 

  As discussed above, differences between the Chinese and the English in their thinking patterns are obvious among scholar. The differences among scholars attitudes or classification of the thinking patterns between the two nations are not essentially diversified but rather lie in the degree of detailed typology. Actually, the issue can be approached and considered from various viewpoints. Here are but a few instances for illustration.

 

3.1 Differences Between Chinese and English Thinking Patterns

 

3.1.1 Visual Thinking vs. Rational Thinking

 

The visualized thinking mode, or empirical synthesizes thinking pattern as Zheng Yanhong (2003: 51) puts it, …

The Chinese, on the other hand, seem more favorite of concrete images and tend to reflect on the world from the view point of specific objects. They would rather describe the objects to generalized principles and inspirations. That to great extent accounts for the image thinking modes of the Chinese. For example,

  1a. But this very formulation is indicative of the understanding attitude.

  1b. 但这一说法本身就清楚地表明了其基本态度。

  2a. His weariness and increasing heat determined him to sit down in the first convenient shade.

  2b. 他疲惫不堪,天气也越来越炎热,于是他下定决心一碰到舒适的阴凉处就坐下休息。

  3a. Shortness of time has required the omission of some countries.

  3b. 由于时间不够,他取消了对某些国家的访问。

In Examples 1a, 2a and 3a, the subjects are not any person or object but rather some state or concepts although the sentences are more person-oriented. Yet in the Chinese version, the persons concerned are used as the subjects to directly reveal the speakers concern.

Even when the Chinese means to express some attitude or impression, they may not state it directly but rather use metaphor or indications by means of some specific images. For example,

  4a.He had sacrificed with less visibility in the policy decision.

  4b.在决策过程中,他已经不那么抛头露面了。

  5a.我的心里七上八下的。

  5b.There are seven ups and eight downs in my heart?

  5c.My mind is greatly upset.

The concept of visibility in Example 4a is replaced by the image expression of 抛头露面 in 4b in which  (head) and  (face) are used to show his presence or visibility in the occasions. In Examples 5a and 5b, the specific numbers of  (seven) and  (eight) in the Chinese are replace by upset in English because the Chinese phrase 七上八下 just uses the two numbers to vividly describe the get chaos in the speakers mind. Yet, as for Example 5b, the direct rendering sounds rather confusing to English readers as few of them can understand why there are such things as seven ups and eight downs in a persons mind.

Such instances are just abundant in our daily speech, not to mention the numerous classic essays and literary masterpieces and EST papers.

 

3.1.2 Generalizing Thinking vs. Analytical Thinking

 

The differences of philosophy and cultural background between English and Chinese have resulted in the rethinking of the Han nationality as an entirety thinking country and the English people individual characteristics of thinking.  

 

3.2 Linguistic Features Resulting from Differences of Thinking Patterns

 

   The effect of different thinking modes on linguistic construction is also apparent in the lexical, syntactic, contextual and grammatical features of the two languages.

 

3.2.1 Lexical Features

 

In some other grammatical aspects, Chinese has no grammatical changes in the morphemes, while it is just too common in English to change the forms of words for different grammatical functions.


4 The Impact of Thinking Patterns on Translation

 

In practical translation, green hands have never shown enough errors resulting from insufficient consideration of the different thinking modes between the English and the Chinese. Such translations are usually literally and grammatically flawless, and sometimes read native, yet genuine native speakers of English will feel awkward in reading such translation and yet stay at loss where the problem lies. Such problems can be categorized into five: stubborn rendering, misleading rendering, awkward transferring, wordy diction and inaccurate translation in sequential ranks in light of degree of inaccuracy.

   

4.1 Stubborn Rendering Resulting from Ignorance of Different Syntactic Preferences

 

Its not difficult to find that the above translations are all acceptable to the TL readers but those with * are much inferior in diction and do not offer native English narrations. Such requirement is somewhat beyond the translation strategies but is also quite helpful to improving the quality of our translation. Translators may achieve this goal by improving their own writing skills.


5 Some Practical Approaches in Translation Between the Two Languages

 

5.1 Sufficient Cultural Background Information

 

Sufficient cultural background information is not only helpful but also necessary in successful translation between two languages as distant from each other as Chinese and English. But its easier said than done, as culture is such an all-round concept and concerns so many aspects of our lives and languages. No one can be fully informed in this aspect, and what we can do is try to learn more about it and put it into our translation.  

    It is not difficult to find that backward translation has made Example 60c a much better translation of 60a. Actually in longer contexts, backward translation is even more important and beneficial.

 

 


6 Conclusion

 

From the comparison of the English-Chinese languages and their modes of thought, we may see that they are of one thing but two aspects. Resulted from different cultural background, the differences of their modes of thought have greatly determined their own languages. On the other hand, the languages also reflect and influenced their thinking patterns. So in order to learn English well and better master the two languages the thinking patterns should be studied deeply. In my own opinion, the study of languages from the degree of thinking pattern will greatly benefit the learners. For example, it will give the guide to the teaching of second language and the writing of composition. Of course, mode of thought belongs to philosophy. So it is a very complicated concept, and to go deep into it will need a very long time and also requires many efforts.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Works Cited

 

[1] Alderson, J. Charles, Caroline Clapham and Dianne Wall. Language Test Construction and Evaluation[M]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

[2] Bly, Robert. The Eight Stages of Translation[A]. In William Frawley (ed.), Translation: Literary, Linguistics, and Philosophical Perspectives[C]. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1984: 67-89.

[3] Gavison, Ruth. Legal Protection of Privacy[D]. PhD Dissertation. Oxford: Oxford University, 1975.

[4] Hale, Gordon A. and Rosalea Courtney. The Effects of Note-Taking on Listening Comprehension in the Test of English as a Foreign Language [J]. Language Testing, 1994(1): 29-48.

[5] Online Computer Library Center, Inc. History of OCLC[EB/OL]. [2000-01-08]. http://www.oclc.org/about.en.html.

[6] Richards, Jack C. Listening Comprehension: Approach, Design, Procedure [J]. TESOL Quarterly, 1983(3): 219-240.

[7] Wang, Ning. Globalization and Cultural Translation [M]. New York: Cavendish Square Publishing, 2005.

[8] 曹明伦.“我是否可以把你比喻成夏天?”——兼与沈弘先生商榷[J].外国文学评论,2008(3):35-40.

[9] 丁文祥. 数字革命与竞争国际化[N].中国青年报,2000-11-20(15).

[10] 国家标准局信息分类编码研究所.GB/T 2659-1986 世界各国和地区名称代码[S]//全国文献工作标准化技术委员会.文献工作国家标准汇编:3.北京:中国标准出版社,1988:59-92.

[11] 海德格尔.存在与时间[M].陈嘉映,王庆节译.北京:生活•读书•新知三联书店,1999.

……

[16] 钟玲.王红公英诗里的中国风味[A].郑树森,周英雄和袁鹤翔合编.中西比较文学论集[C].台北:时报文化出版事业有限公司,1980:103-134.

[17] 邹申.语言测试[M]. 上海:上海外语教育出版社,2000.

 

以上仅为示例。所列文献与正文中的文献引用必须一致。

Acknowledgements

 

    I have eternal gratitude to…, my thesis supervisor, for his inestimable help and valuable instruction, and to Professor …, for his insightful lectures, which inspire me to compose this thesis.

    I am greatly indebted to Professor … for his allowing me to have access to his books pertinent to this thesis.

    I also thank those who help me in course of the writing and whose names I can’t list here one by one.

  (论文导师,统一称 thesis supervisor 。致谢需改写。)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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英语专业毕业论文写作资料查询网址

1. 中国国家图书馆:http://www.lib.nle.gov.cn 
2. 清华大学图书馆:http://www.lib.tsinghua.edu.cn/
3. 北京大学图书馆:http://www.lib.pku.edu.cn/
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7. 北京外国语大学图书馆:http://www.bfsu.edu.cn/enet/lib/tsg.htm
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15. OCLC联机计算机图书馆中心:http://newfirstsearch.oclc.org/
16. 语言文学在线资源库(Online MLA International Bibliography):http://www.silverplater.com/catalog/mlab.htm
17. 英语和外语教学在线杂志:http://www.u-net.com/eflweb/home.htm
18. “美国研究”网页:http://www.georgetown.edu/crossroads/asw
19. ERIC英语教学文摘档案库:http://eric-web/tc.columbia.edu/abstracts
20. 中国期刊网:http://166.111.88.20/index.htm/
21. 美国ISI公司Arts and Humanities Citation Index (A & HCI)-1975-presenthttp://wos.isitrial.com/help/helptoc.html#abhci
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23. Uncover期刊论文原文传递服务系统:http://uncweb.carl.org/reveal/
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25. 英国London大学Berkbeck学院应用语言学图书馆:http://alt.venus.co.uk/VL/AppLingBBK
26. 美国ERIC(教育資源信息中心)语言与语言学资料交换中心:opher://ericir.syr.edu:70/11/clearinghouse/16houses/CLL/ERIC-LL
国内外外语与外语教学类网址
1. Applied linguistics virtual library: http://alt.venus.co.uk/AppLingBBK/welcome.Html
2. Human language page: http://www.June29.com/HLP
3. Linguistic resources on the Internet: http://www.sil.org/linguidtics
4. Universal survey of language: http://www.teleport.com/~napoleon
5. 中国基础教育网:http://www.benet.com.cn
6. 中国英语教师网:http://www.englishteachers.com.cn
7. 美国全球英语学习网:http://www.globeenglish.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                          外国语学院英语系、商务英语系

 

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